Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. For Schopenhauer, more life is relentless monotony… Schopenhauer’s pessimism may have less to do with pain and more to do with ennui, the dulling monotony of the days and the years. Like Schopenhauer’s Will, it is an irrational force that surges up from dark origins, and it expresses itself in wild drunken frenzies, sexual abandon, and festivals of cruelty. Principally, Nietzsche highly disagreed with Schopenhauer when it came to morals. A more accurate statement might be that for a German – rather than a French or British writer of that time – Schopenhauer was an honest and open atheist. For Schopenhauer, happiness and pain are definitive of life value because they’re the only options if ennui is to be avoided, after the death of meaning/final goal. Schopenhauer’s principle of individuation applicable to the world of representations is the key element in Nietzsche’s concept of the Apollonian and Schopenhauer’s principle of the undifferentiated nature of ultimate reality of the will is the key element in Nietzsche’s concept of the Dionysian. The salvation of the soul and kingdom of God offered an absolute value for the masses and a definite goal beyond the meaninglessness of an individual and fragmented life. Nietzsche's Philosophy of Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). He is the superior philosopher, for he has that mysterious relation to the absolute that preoccupies both great thinkers and great artists alike. Schopenhauer was a philosopher who for Nietzsche was capable of achieving this balance. True moral individuals do not distinguish themselves from others, for they recognize the deep metaphysical unity of all beings. In Nietzsche… However, the need for a final goal hasn’t disappeared – for every need develops deep roots if it is satisfied for a long period of time. Thus it can only feed on itself in a thousand aspects, and continually pushes from every point on an endless path. In relying on Georg Simmel’s analysis, I suspect I may have caricatured Nietzsche in order to write a balanced essay, so feel free to disregard this as an adequate representation of Nietzsche’s multifaceted philosophy. Recognition came late in his life, however,starting only in 1853 with the publication of a review article by J.Oxenford… First reaction: Wow! This desire is a remnant of the heritage of Christianity, a need for a definition of life’s movement that continues as an empty urge for a goal that is no longer accessible. Each stage of existence does not require an anchor in something absolute, but rather something higher that succeeds; what was antecedent and potential becomes more efficient and expansive. Nietzsche came to see compassion as a weakness, not a virtue to be cultivated. However, Schopenhauer ends up defending the tougher case with better results. It was originally written for a friend who argued that I had no reason of siding with Schopenhauer over Nietzsche, and it became a lengthy analysis of optimism and pessimism. C. Middleton) Hackett, 1996. – it really does seem that we would rather increase it and make it worse than it has ever been!” Schopenhauer’s philosophy is essentially a single thought: the metaphysical essence of the world and ourselves is expressed in will. Arthur Schopenhauer was one of the most famous philosophers of the 19th century, and a significant influence on Nietzsche. Nietzsche and Schopenhauer clashed over more than just compassion. Philosophers thus abhor marriage (Nietzsche observes that Heraclitus, Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Kant, and Schopenhauer never married) and all other distractions from their philosophical pursuits. The Ubermensch is not a fixed goal that gives meaning to evolution, but the expression that a goal isn’t required. Anticipating contemporary deconstructive readings of philosophical texts, Georg Simmel pits the two German masters of philosophy of life against each other in a play of opposition and supplementation. Nietzsche's Philosophy of Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Friedrich Nietzsche developed his philosophy during the late 19th century. He certainly rejects the claim that we are responsible in what he calls the “metaphysical superlative sense”, which is precisely the libertarian-incompatibilist sense. Therefore, Nietzsche expresses modernity much better than Schopenhauer in certain respects. Nietzsche’s mature philosophy. © Philosophy Now 2020. The higher cultures are so structured that they force the inhabitants to live along longer and more difficult paths. Two pages after that, however, we find a… Better to encourage them to face up to their difficulties and struggle against them as best they can. Nietzsche’s craving for love was only matched by his fear of it. Life, including and beyond the physical and the spiritual existence is the total sum of powers and potential that themselves are geared towards the augmentation, intenstification and increased effectiveness of the life process. What is bad or worthless is whatever prevents the potential of humanity, and what is good or valuable is what liberates the maximum of potential energy of humanity. Nietzsche’s writings fall into three well-defined periods. Nietzsche takes a “monstrous mode of valuation” to stand behind the ascetic ideal. Therefore, Nietzsche expresses modernity much better than Schopenhauer in certain respects. Dolson elaborates: “Nietzsche’s interests were never in the direction of metaphysics. An exceptionally well done combination of exposition and commentary on both Schopenhauer's and Nietzsche's philosophies. For both Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, the world of Representation, that is, the world as perceived by the intellect, is shaped according to its utility as a condition for the life of the species. Hence life retains a deep need for an absolute goal, especially now the content has been excluded. The absolute philosophical expression for this inner condition of modern man is Schopenhauer’s. He contrasted this with the pagan religions of ancient Greece and Rome, with their heroic gods who took pleasure in engaging in warfares and love affairs. Us moderns are surrounded by an endless web of enterprises and institutions where the final and valuable goals are missing. The deepest depreciation of life and greatest triumph of process requires the negation of absolute purpose or value beyond life. Won’t the later stages be more evolved than earlier ones if its greater worth is legitimized by being closer to the final goal? For sarcastic, ironic, clever, introvert, fun, memes, swag, funny college, students, manager, accountants and or exitentialists Look great with this stylish funny gift shirt! Nietzsche and Schopenhauer T-Shirt for Philosophers and people who like philosophy. Well, does evolution only include valuable but not adverse potential? False The superior person overcomes pessimism without retreating into lies about ultimate meaning or purpose. For Nietzsche (whose ill-health, lack of public recognition and poverty surely caused him more personal grief than that experienced by the robust, famous and well-to-do Schopenhauer), suffering was an inevitable outcome of the struggle for achievement. He has taken a completely new view of life, in opposition to Schopenhauer, from the concept of evolution. (Translators, Helmut Loiskandle, Deena Weinstein & Michael Weinstein). Nonethe… Nietzsche rejected such metaphysical inquiries. The negation of absolute purpose for existence, a common point between thinkers, has direct bearing on value in Schopenhauer’s devaluation of existence. But Nietzsche rejected Schopenhauer… 186 pages. This interpretation of a philosopher-poet who absolutized Darwin’s idea of evolution may be the ultimate expression of the affirmation of life. The entire sequence is unmappable, which leaves our modern consciousness limited to the means, the mechanisms, and the final goals that bring meaning to the steps are pushed off towards the horizon and eventually lie past it. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! When all these activities and interests (supposedly absolute values themselves) become transparent, being exposed as means, then the question of the sense or meaning of the whole emerges. 186 pages. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The self-denial called for is specifically the denial of natural human impulses, ones that are part of our existence as human animals, and not impulses that are taken to have nonnatural sources, such as love of God or, on Schopenhauer’s account, compassion. Nietzsche's philosophy began as a rejection of the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. This paints a picture of unlimited optimism. Schopenhauer was a metaphysician who built upon Kant’s transcendental idealism. But Nietzsche rejected Schopenhauer… Second reaction: A swirling confusion of half-thoughts, such as: It is a sad state of affairs if all we have are enemies; Schopenhauer and Nietzsche as torn halves (one finding meaning in the renunciation of the will, the other insisting that there is meaning only in an ever-greater affirmation of the will ) i.e. It would be better not to live at all, Schopenhauer stated, but since we are alive (because of the ceaseless desire of the blind will to perpetuate the species) then we at least have a moral obligation not to increase suffering. Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. In The Gay Science, Nietzsche praises Arthur Schopenhauer's "immortal doctrines of the intellectuality of intuition, the apriority of the law of causality, (...) and the non-freedom of the will," which have not been assimilated enough by the disciples.Following is, then, the short description of those views of the latter philosopher. It could be objected that only with a final goal can this chain of events become truly genuine evolution. It is through the will that human beings find suffering, because their desires can never be satisfied. However, Schopenhauer ends up defending the tougher case with better results. Schopenhauer's writings influenced many, from Friedrich Nietzsche to nineteenth-century feminists. A reissue of a 1986 translation of Semmel’s Schopenhauer and Nietzsche: Ein Vortragzyklus (1907). Woe says fade! Passive nihilism consists of simply withdrawing from life-affirming activities (this was Nietzsche’s verdict on Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy). This site uses cookies to recognize users and allow us to analyse site usage. – it really does seem that we would rather increase it and make it worse than it has ever been!” Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil Critique of the Schopenhaurian philosophy is a criticism of Mainländer appended to Die Philosophie der Erlösung. In Nietzsche’s view, Christianity in particular was a religion of pity, basing itself upon the image of a bleeding and suffering deity. In this, Nietzsche finds the meaning of ascetic ideals among philosophers: it is a means to maximize the feeling of power. He always gave credit to this clear-eyed atheist for helping him to break away from theology, and for showing him that there were other paths one could follow in the search for knowledge. 1. Friedrich Nietzsche, Selected Letters. As long life had absolute purpose, all the relations to this purpose proved to be sufficient. Nietzsche identifies two maxims for the successful educator: on the one hand, to recognize and develop particular strengths in a pupil; on the other hand, to draw forth and nourish all the aspects in harmony. As long life is constituted by brief means-ends relations, sufficient and comforting in itself, it lacks the existential questioning that is a byproduct of being lost amidst a gigantic network of means with detours and dead-ends. Who could have predicted that this devout young man would grow up to become the most ferocious opponent of Christianity, and author of a book with the provocative title The Antichrist? Arthur Schopenhauer was born on February 22, 1788 in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland) to a prosperous merchant, Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, and his much younger wife, Johanna. In steps Christianity with redemption and fulfillment. The middle period, from Human, All-Too-Human up to The Gay Science, reflects the tradition of French aphorists. This character of happiness isn’t its psychological reality but an ideal sense…even if happiness is only fleeting, some of eternity’s splendor is infused in happiness.. Eternity appears to be mystical but is actually a logical consequence of Nietzsche’s philosophy. My approach will be multidisciplinary combining philosophical analysis, literary and … While a student at Leipzig University in the autumn of 1865, Nietzsche purchased a copy of Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and Representation at a second-hand bookstore. The solution is that evolution is the unravelling of latent energy in a given phenomenon or the realization of latent potential. As Nietzsche is often seen as one of the philosophers whom Schopenhauer influenced profoundly the discussion and contrast of their respective philosophical positions is useful.